Taurine (Organosulfonic acids)
- Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid-like endogenous compound important for the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis of kidney cells.
- Functions as a protective agent against immune- or toxicity-induced forms of glomerulonephritis.
- Alters blood flow in renal blood vessels to stabilize the endothelium of the extensive renal vascular network.
- Taurine scavenges ROS that can influence podocyte function and increase protein excretion.
- Taurine’s role as an osmolyte is likely important in many cell types in all organs, especially evident in renal medullary cells, where final urine concentration is established.
- N-acetylcysteine is a thiol compound with anti-oxidant effect, which can reduce the production of oxygen free radicals and reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
- Can reduce serum creatinine, increase the clearance of endogenous creatinine, and improve the ultrastructure of podocytes, which can delay the deterioration progress of renal function.
- Significantly reduce urinary protein in diabetic rat model and possibly delay the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy.
- Reported to protect the kidney from injury induced by contrast media, ischemia, and toxins.
- Used to prevent acute renal damage in a small number of patients with serum creatinine levels above 1.5 mg/dL (132.6 µmol/L) and undergoing cardiac catheterization.
- A prospective study showed that taurine in combination with N-acetylcysteine was useful in attenuating UACR (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio) and sTGF-β1 (serum transforming growth factor) levels in microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients.